• Pre-hospital care is medical care given to patients before arrival in hospital after activation of emergency medical services. Care of seriously injured patients start at the scene of the injury and for severely injured patients acting quickly in the prehospital period is crucial with decisions and interventions affecting outcomes.

    It is a crucial period when irreversible pathology and secondary injury to neurological and cardiac tissue can be


  • The transfer of skills and procedures to pre-hospital medicine enables early advanced care across a range of disciplines. The variety of possible pathologies,

    challenges of environmental factors, and hazardous situations require management that is tailored to the patient’s need and setting. Pre-hospital emergency

    medicine consists of not only clinical care, but also logistics, rescue competencies, and scene management.

  • Medical Retrieval services provide the highest level of emergency medical patient care treatment and transport. Critically ill and injured patients are usually retrieved using a range of transport from emergency ambulances, helicopters to fixed-wing aircraft. Many countries with a large population in rural or unreachable areas have developed retrieval system such as Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia, MedSTAR (South Australia), Emergency Medical Retrieval Services (Scotland) and many more.

  • Pre-hospital care is a developing and exciting area of emergency practice. Despite various issues, advances have taken place in pre-hospital care. The realization

    that, particularly in the case of trauma, the less the prehospital time, the better the outcome, has resulted in the shortening of on-scene times, reduction in time, and rapid transport, utilising in transit resuscitation. Moreover, there are several time-dependent treatments, where the challenge of providing optimal emergency care has increased.

    Cardiac arrest is the best example of a time-sensitive condition, where response time, skilled treatment correlate strongly with outcomes. There is also good evidence that some other conditions will have better outcomes if high-quality treatment is provided in a timely fashion.

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